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dc.contributor.advisor Adler, Jill en
dc.contributor.author Clark, Jory en
dc.date.accessioned 2018-07-10T22:58:07Z en
dc.date.available 2018-07-10T22:58:07Z en
dc.date.issued 2018-07-10 en
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10211.3/204270 en
dc.description.abstract Circulating blood monocytes are naive cells that differentiate into macrophages. Macrophages (along with Natural Killer (NK) cells, mast cells, and granulocyte derived cells) are an essential part of the innate immune system. Macrophages phagocytize material that does not present as a healthy self-cell such as bacteria, cell debris, and cancerous cells. Research into cell to cell interactions has revealed a system of communication by which immune cells, including macrophages, can signal each other via cytokines. When macrophages are activated by these cytokines in vitro, they have been described as polarized with two functional phenotypes. M1 (classic) macrophages promote inflammation, releasing cytokines to signal other immune cells to respond to the infection. M2 macrophages promote anti-inflammatory responses and reduce inflammation in infected areas to protect host tissue cells from damage. Several studies have shown that macrophage stimulation with IFN-γ will induce an M1 response whereas stimulation with IL-4 will induce an M2 response. Both responses play important roles in immune function and previous research has shown that the timing of this activation during an immune response contributes markedly to resistance. Studies on two chicken lineages, defined by their MHC gene complex, B2 and B19, have shown that B2 haplotype chickens are more resistant to several pathogens/diseases than B19 haplotype chickens. We hypothesized that B2 derived macrophages have better timing and stronger responses to foreign stimuli and this contributes to the higher disease resistance in B2 birds. It is thought that the M1 and M2 states have some plasticity and can exist together at different levels depending on the microenvironment. This study investigated the activation of B2 and B19 monocyte derived macrophages after stimulation with IFN-γ. Specifically, RNA expression levels of particular molecular markers after stimulation were analyzed. Six molecular markers for the M1 phenotypic profile were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. This study also sought to corroborate nitric oxide production data from a previous study done by this lab when stimulated with a yeast derived chicken IFN-γ, as well as optimize culture of macrophages of both haplotypes. This study found that cultures could be optimized to produce healthier cultures empirically consistent with higher RNA yield. This study also corroborated previous findings that B2 macrophages produced more nitric oxide than B19 macrophages upon stimulation with yeast derived chicken IFN-γ. Of the six markers (IL-12, IL-6, IL-1β, HES1, SOCS3, IFN-γ) chosen to evaluate differences in M1 polarization of the macrophages of each haplotype, we found no significant difference in expression levels. When compared to the results of another study done by this lab using RNAseq, the results of this study may be faulted by error and insights gained from these results should be cautioned. Further study is required to understand the mechanisms underlying the differences in disease resistance of the two haplotypes. A study in to the M2 phenotype of these macrophages may be of value, however, RNAseq may be a better route than RT-PCR. en
dc.format.extent 115 pgs. en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher California State Polytechnic University, Pomona en
dc.rights.uri http://www.cpp.edu/~broncoscholar/rightsreserved.html en
dc.subject macrophage activation en
dc.subject macrophage polarization en
dc.subject chicken B haplotypes en
dc.subject B2 haplotype en
dc.subject B19 haplotype en
dc.title Classical Macrophage Activation and the Role of Macrophages in Disease Resistance Differences of Gallus gallus B Haplotypes en
dc.type Thesis en
dc.contributor.department Department of Biological Sciences en
dc.description.degree M.S. en
dc.contributor.committeeMember Stathopoulos, Christos en
dc.contributor.committeeMember Drechsler, Yvonne en
dc.contributor.committeeMember Alas, Steve en
dc.rights.license All rights reserved en

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